• Esaote Clinical Solutions Diagnosis

    Диагностика

    Цель компании Esaote – обеспечить точную и надежную диагностику, отвечающую любым клиническим нуждам. Интегрированные решения для управления данными и изображениями гарантируют безопасный и рационализированный рабочий процесс.

Диагностика

Клинические ссылки – Научная литература

Узнайте о лучших клинических исследованиях, призванных помогать медицинским работникам ежедневно обеспечивать первоклассный уход за пациентами с помощью высокопроизводительных систем визуализации и передовых технологий.
Собрание наиболее важной научной литературы, затрагивающей определенную тему, предоставляет научное доказательство для повышения клинической достоверности при ведении пациентов и разработке руководств по клинической практике.
Определив основные проблемы в сфере ухода за пациентами, медицинские работники и специалисты по визуализации могут повысить компетентность и открыть новые возможности для обучения, испытать и оценить новые методы и процедуры в ежедневной клинической практике.

Обнаружение и описание участков поражения с использованием контрастных веществ

  • [1] Emilio Quaia, “Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the small bowel in Crohn’s disease”, Abdom Imaging (2013) 38:1005–1013 DOI: 10.1007/s00261-013-0014-8
  • [2] Klauser Andrea, Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rheumatic joint disease", HIGHLIGHTS in CONTRAST, ULTRASOUND, Volume 2 - Number 3 - May 2005
  • [3] Klauser Andrea, "Value of Contrast Ultrasound in Rheumatic Joint Disease, dic-06, US Musculoskeletal Review 2006 - Issue 2
  • [4] Stefano Di Domenico, Valentina Patti, Federico Fazio, Elisabetta Moggia, Iris Fontana, and Umberto Valente, “CEUS Retrograde Cystography Is Helpful in Percutaneous Drainage of Complex Posttransplant Lymphocele”, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Case Reports in Urology, Volume 2012, Article ID 919215, doi:10.1155/2012/919215
  • [5] Marco Baron Toaldo, Veronica Salvatore, Sara Marinelli, Chiara Palamà, Maddalena Milazzo, Luca Croci, Laura Venerandi, Mario Cipone, Luigi Bolondi, Fabio Piscaglia, “Use of VEGFR-2 Targeted Ultrasound Contrast Agent for the Early Evaluation of Response to Sorafenib in a Mouse Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma”, Mol Imaging Biol (2014), DOI: 10.1007/s11307-014-0764-x (Academy of Molecular Imaging and Society for Molecular Imaging, 2014)
  • [6] Sara Marinelli, Veronica Salvatore, Marco Baron Toaldo, Maddalena Milazzo, Luca Croci, Laura Venerandi, Anna Pecorelli, Chiara Palamà, Alessia Diana, Luigi Bolondi, Fabio Piscaglia, “Evaluation of the impact of transient interruption of antiangiogenic treatment using ultrasound-based techniques in a murine model of hepatocellular carcinoma”, June 14, www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/14/403
  • [7] E.M. Jung, P. Wiggermann, C. Greis, F. Eder, J. Ehrich, W. Jung, A.G. Schreyer, “First results of endocavity evaluation of the microvascularization of malignant prostate tumors using contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) including perfusion analysis”, Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation Volume 52, Number 2-4 / 2012, Pages 167-177, DOI 10.3233/CH-2012-1594
  • [8] B. Corcioni C. Gaudiano, F. Busato, C. V. Pultrone, R. Schiavina, R. Golfieri, “Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of small testicular masses”, ECR 2015
  • [9] A. De Marchi, S. Pozza, E. Gangemi, M. Stella, C. Faletti, “Ultrasonographic imaging to study and follow-up patients undergoing lipofilling”, ECR 2014
  • [10] O. Catalano, A. Nunziata, E. de Lutio di Castelguidone, G. Nasti, F. Tatangelo, A. Petrillo, “Contrast-enhanced sonography (CEUS) imaging of colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastasis: comparison with CT in the assessment of response to neoadjuvant, antiangiogenic therapy”, ECR 2013
  • [11] R. Iezzi, M. la Torre, M. Santoro, R. Dattesi, A. Guerra, L. Bonomo, “Role of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the detection of carotid plaque vulnerability: a pilot study“, ECR 2013
  • [12] G. Mauri, E. Porazzi, T. Tondolo, U. Restelli, L. Solbiati, “Therapeutic impact of intraprocedural contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)”, ECR 2013
  • [13] A. De Marchi, S. Pozza, E. Brach del Prever, P. De Petro, P. Balocco, R. Piana, A. Linari, C. Faletti, ”Can contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) distinguish benign from malignant soft-tissue masses? Prelimirary results”, ECR 2013
  • [14] Tobias De Zordo, Sabine P. Mlekusch a, Gudrun M. Feuchtner a, Erich Murb, Michael Schirmer c, Andrea S. Klauser, “Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rheumatoid arthritis”, European Journal of Radiology 64 (2007) 222–230

Комплексное решение для эластосонографии всех участков

  • [1] G. Monetti, "Ecografia muscolo-scheletrica – Elastosonografia", TIMEO Ed., Bologna, February 2011
  • [2] L. Di Geso et al., "Reliability of ultrasound measurements of dermal thickness at digits in systemic sclerosis: role of elastosonography", Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2011; 29
  • [3] Ragazzoni F et al., "High diagnostic accuracy and interobserver reliability of real-time elastography in the evaluation of thyroid nodules", Ultrasound Med Biol. 2012 Jul; 38(7): 1154-62
  • [4] Sperandeo M, Trovato FM, Dimitri L, Catalano D, Simeone A, Martines GF, Piscitelli AP, Trovato GM, "Lung transthoracic ultrasound elastography imaging and guided biopsies of subpleural cancer: a preliminary report", Acta Radiol. 2014 Jun 20. pii: 0284185114538424
  • [5] Marco Sperandeo, Guglielmo M. Trovato, Lucia Dimitri, Giuseppe Fabio Martines, Anna Simeone, Francesca M. Trovato, Angela Pamela Piscitelli, Daniela Catalano, "Ultrasound Elastography Pattern of lung squamous cell carcinoma: Preliminary report on a possible adjunctive tool for noninvasive imaging", J Clin Oncol 31, 2013 (suppl; abstr e18518)
  • [6] Fabrizio Calliada, Mario Canepari, Giovanna Ferraioli, Carlo Filice, “Esaote: ElaXto Sonoelastography, in Sono-Elastography Main Clinical Applications”, EDIMES Srl Edizioni Medico Scientifiche – Pavia, ISBN 978-88-88541-09-9
  • [7] E. Giannotti, J. Nori, D. Abdulcadir, G. Bicchierai, L. Forzoni, S. de Beni, S. D'onofrio, G. Scaperrotta, “Virtual Biopsy and 3DPan Fusion Imaging for Breast Core Biopsy”, ePOS ECR 2014: www.myECR.org/epos - DOI: 10.1594/ecr2014/C-0219
  • [8] S. Matteoli, L. Forzoni, F. Vannetti, A. Virga, A. Corvi, R. Molino-Lova, “Elastosonography and elastic modulus in healthy young heel pads”, VDE BMT Congress 2014, Hannover, Germany, October 2014
  • [9] S. Matteoli, L. Forzoni, F. Vannetti, A. Virga, A. Corvi, R. Molino-Lova; “Sonoelastography on diabetic heel pads: a feasibility study”, Congress: ECR 2015, Poster No.: C-1005, Type: Scientific Exhibit; DOI: 10.1594/ecr2015/C-1005; DOI-Link: dx.doi.org/10.1594/ecr2015/C-1005

Слияние изображений для плохо просматриваемых участков поражения

БРЮШНАЯ ПОЛОСТЬ

  • [1] Mauri G, Cova L, De Beni S, Ierace T, Tondolo T, Cerri A, Goldberg SN, Solbiati L., "Real-Time US-CT/MRI Image Fusion for Guidance of Thermal Ablation of Liver Tumors Undetectable with US: Results in 295 Cases", Cardiovascular Interventional Radiology, 8 мая 2014 г.
  • [2] Enzo Di Mauro, Marco Solbiati, Stefano De Beni, Leonardo Forzoni, Sara D’Onofrio, Luigi Solbiati, "Virtual Navigator Real-Time Ultrasound Fusion Imaging with Positron Emission Tomography for Liver Interventions", 35-я ежегодная международная конференция по инженерным наукам в обществе медицины и биологии (IEEE EMBS), Осака, Япония, 3-7 июля 2013 г.

УРОЛОГИЯ

  • [3] Villa, F. Chiesa, I. Rosenberg, A. Tagliafico, M. Perinetti, A. Del Prato, "MRI and ultrasound guided prostate biopsy using the fusion imaging technique", Конгресс ECR, 2013 г.

НЕЙРОХИРУРГИЯ

  • [4] Prada F, DelBene M, Mattei L, Casali C, Fillippini A, Legnani F, Mangraviti A, Saladino A, Perin A Richetta C, Vetrano I, Moiraghi A, Saini M, DiMeco F., "Fusion Imaging for intra-operative ultrasound-based navigation in neurosurgery", Journal of Ultrasound 2014, 17:243-251 DOI:10.1007/s40477-014-0111-8
  • [5] Prada F, DelBene M, Mattei L, Lodigiani L, Kolev V, DeBeni S, Casali C, Legnani F, Perin A, Saladino A, Solbiati L, Sakas G, DiMeco F., "Pre-operative magnetic resonance and intra-operative ultrasound fusion imaging for real-time neuronavigation in brain tumor surgery", Ultraschall. In press, 2014 г.

НЕЙРОСОНОЛОГИЯ

  • [6] Stephan J. Schreiber, José M. Valdueza, and Florian Doepp, "Transcranial color coded sonography: advanced approach using ultrasound fusion imaging", IJCNMH 2014; 1 (доп. 1):S16
  • [7] Lagana, M.; Preti, M.; Forzoni, L.; D'onofrio, S.; De Beni, S.; Barberio, A.; Cecconi, P.; Baselli, G.; "Transcranial Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Image fusion with Virtual Navigator", - Multimedia, IEEE Transactions on Volume: PP, выпуск: 99 (июль 2013) - DOI: 10.1109/TMM.2013.2244871
  • [8] Leonardo Forzoni, Sara D'Onofrio, Stefano De Beni, Maria M. Laganà, David Skoloudik, Giuseppe Baselli, and Pietro Cecconi , "Virtual Navigator Registration Procedure for Transcranial Application"; DOI: 10.2316/P.2012.764-158; Proceeding (764) Biomedical Engineering / 765: Telehealth / 766: Assistive Technologies – 2012

ОПОРНО-ДВИГАТЕЛЬНЫЙ АППАРАТ

  • [9] Iagnocco A, Perella C, D'Agostino MA, Sabatini E, Valesini G, Conaghan PG., "Magnetic resonance and ultrasonography real-time fusion imaging of the hand and wrist in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis", Rheumatology (Oxford). 2011 авг;50(8):1409-13. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/ker111

ГРУДНАЯ КЛЕТКА

  • [10] Leonardo Forzoni, Stefano De Beni, Sara D’Onofrio, Maria Marcella Laganà, Jacopo Nori, "Virtual Navigator 3D Panoramic for Breast Examination", 35-я ежегодная международная конференция по инженерным наукам в обществе медицины и биологии (IEEE EMBS), Осака, Япония, 3-7 июля 2013 г., 1394-1397
  • [11] E. Giannotti, J. Nori, D. Abdulcadir, G. Bicchierai, L. Forzoni, S. de Beni, S. D'onofrio, G. Scaperrotta, "Virtual Biopsy and 3DPan Fusion Imaging for Breast Core Biopsy", ePOS ECR 2014: www.myECR.org/epos - DOI: 10.1594/ecr2014/C-0219

Неинвазивный метод исследования деформации миокарда при помощи спекл-трекинг эхокардиографии (СТЭ)

Определения и базовые сведения о визуализации деформации миокарда

  • [1] Definitions for a common standard for 2D speckle tracking echocardiography: consensus document of the EACVI/ASE/Industry Task Force to standardize deformation imaging, Voigt Jet al. (J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2015 фев;28(2):183-93 и Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015 янв; 16(1):1-11) - 1. ссылка на Pubmed - 2. ссылка на Pubmed
  • [2] Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography: standardization efforts based on synthetic ultrasound data, Jan D’hooge et al. (Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015 авг 18. pii: jev197. [предварительная электронная публикация]) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [3] Current and evolving echocardiographic techniques for the quantitative evaluation of cardiac mechanics: ASE/EAE consensus statement on methodology and indications endorsed by the Japanese Society of Echocardiography, Mor-Avi V et al. (Eur J Echocardiogr. 2011 мар;12(3):167-205) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [4] Assessment of myocardial mechanics using speckle tracking echocardiography: fundamentals and clinical applications, Geyer H et al. (J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2010 апр;23(4):351-69) - ссылка на Pubmed

Гипертрофия левого желудочка

  • [5] Head-to-Head Comparison of Global Longitudinal Strain Measurements among Nine Different Vendors: The EACVI/ASE Inter-Vendor Comparison Study, Farsalinos KE et al.(J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2015 окт;28(10):1171-1181) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [6] New concept of myocardial longitudinal strain reserve assessed by a dipyridamole infusion using 2D-strain echocardiography: the impact of diabetes and age, and the prognostic value, Cognet T et al. (Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013 июн 7;12:84.) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [7] Early Identification of Cardiovascular Involvement in Patients With β-thalassemia major, Cusmà Piccione M et al. (Am J Cardiol. 2013 окт 15;112(8):1246-51) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [8] Two-dimensional strain and twist by vector velocity imaging in adolescents with severe obesity, Obert P et al. (Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 дек;20(12):2397-405) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [9] A new 2D-based method for myocardial velocity strain and strain rate quantification in a normal adult and paediatric population: assessment of reference values, C. Bussadori et al. (Cardiovasc Ultrasound. 2009 фев 13;7:8) - ссылка на Pubmed

Гипертрофия предсердия (применение XStrain не по показаниям, только в научно-исследовательских целях)

  • [10] Left atrial function in cardiac amyloidosis, Gianluca Di Bella et al. (J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2016 фев;17(2):113-21) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [11] Characterization of Left Atrial Mechanics in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Essential Hypertension Using Vector Velocity Imaging, Badran HM et al. (Echocardiography. 2015 окт;32(10):1527-38) - ссылка на Pubmed

Гипертрофия правого желудочка (применение XStrain не по показаниям, только в научно-исследовательских целях)

  • [12] Right Ventricular Structure and Function in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis With or Without Pulmonary Hypertension, D'Andrea A et al. (Echocardiography. 2016 янв; 33(1):57-65.) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [13] Evaluation of Right Ventricular Function in Adults with Congenital Heart Defects, Claudio Bussadori et al. (Echocardiography. 2015 янв;32 доп. 1:S38-52) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [14] Right and left ventricular strain and strain rate in young adults before and after percutaneous atrial septal defect closure, C. Bussadori et. al (Echocardiography. 2011 авг;28(7):730-7) - ссылка на Pubmed

XStrain 4D

  • [15] XStrain 4D analysis predicts left ventricular remodeling in patients with recent non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, Antonello D'Andrea et. Al (International Journal of Cardiology, 2016 (206), 107–109 - ссылка на Pubmed недоступна

Объемный анализ функции ЛЖ

Определения и базовые сведения о визуализации деформации миокарда

  • [1] Definitions for a common standard for 2D speckle tracking echocardiography: consensus document of the EACVI/ASE/Industry Task Force to standardize deformation imaging, Voigt Jet al. (J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2015 фев;28(2):183-93 и Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015 янв; 16(1):1-11) - 1. ссылка на Pubmed - 2. ссылка на Pubmed
  • [2] Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography: standardization efforts based on synthetic ultrasound data, Jan D’hooge et al. (Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015 авг 18. pii: jev197. [предварительная электронная публикация]) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [3] Current and evolving echocardiographic techniques for the quantitative evaluation of cardiac mechanics: ASE/EAE consensus statement on methodology and indications endorsed by the Japanese Society of Echocardiography, Mor-Avi V et al. (Eur J Echocardiogr. 2011 мар;12(3):167-205) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [4] Assessment of myocardial mechanics using speckle tracking echocardiography: fundamentals and clinical applications, Geyer H et al. (J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2010 апр;23(4):351-69) - ссылка на Pubmed

Гипертрофия левого желудочка

  • [5] Head-to-Head Comparison of Global Longitudinal Strain Measurements among Nine Different Vendors: The EACVI/ASE Inter-Vendor Comparison Study, Farsalinos KE et al.(J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2015 окт;28(10):1171-1181) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [6] New concept of myocardial longitudinal strain reserve assessed by a dipyridamole infusion using 2D-strain echocardiography: the impact of diabetes and age, and the prognostic value, Cognet T et al. (Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013 июн 7;12:84.) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [7] Early Identification of Cardiovascular Involvement in Patients With β-thalassemia major, Cusmà Piccione M et al. (Am J Cardiol. 2013 окт 15;112(8):1246-51) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [8] Two-dimensional strain and twist by vector velocity imaging in adolescents with severe obesity, Obert P et al. (Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 дек;20(12):2397-405) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [9] A new 2D-based method for myocardial velocity strain and strain rate quantification in a normal adult and paediatric population: assessment of reference values, C. Bussadori et al. (Cardiovasc Ultrasound. 2009 фев 13;7:8) - ссылка на Pubmed

Гипертрофия предсердия (применение XStrain не по показаниям, только в научно-исследовательских целях)

  • [10] Left atrial function in cardiac amyloidosis, Gianluca Di Bella et al. (J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2016 фев;17(2):113-21) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [11] Characterization of Left Atrial Mechanics in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Essential Hypertension Using Vector Velocity Imaging, Badran HM et al. (Echocardiography. 2015 окт;32(10):1527-38) - ссылка на Pubmed

Гипертрофия правого желудочка (применение XStrain не по показаниям, только в научно-исследовательских целях)

  • [12] Right Ventricular Structure and Function in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis With or Without Pulmonary Hypertension, D'Andrea A et al. (Echocardiography. 2016 янв; 33(1):57-65.) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [13] Evaluation of Right Ventricular Function in Adults with Congenital Heart Defects, Claudio Bussadori et al. (Echocardiography. 2015 янв;32 доп. 1:S38-52) - ссылка на Pubmed
  • [14] Right and left ventricular strain and strain rate in young adults before and after percutaneous atrial septal defect closure, C. Bussadori et. al (Echocardiography. 2011 авг;28(7):730-7) - ссылка на Pubmed

XStrain 4D

  • [15] XStrain 4D analysis predicts left ventricular remodeling in patients with recent non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, Antonello D'Andrea et. Al (International Journal of Cardiology, 2016 (206), 107–109 - ссылка на Pubmed недоступна

Урологические исследования: Специализированные решения TRUS

  • [1] Villa, F. Chiesa, I. Rosenberg, A. Tagliafico, M. Perinetti, A. Del Prato, MRI and ultrasound guided prostate biopsy using the fusion imaging technique, ECR 2013 Congress
  • [2] P. Colin, S. Mordon, P. Nevoux, M. Feras Marqa, A. Ouzzane, P. Puech, G. Bozzini B. Leroux, A. Villers, N. Betrouni, Focal Laser Ablation of Prostate Cancer: Definition, Needs, and Future, March 2012, Academic Editor: Eric Barret
  • [3] P. Puech, O. Rouvière, R. Renard-Penna, A. Villers, P. Devos, M. Colombel, M. Bitker, X. Leroy, F. Mège-Lechevallier, E. Comperat, A. Ouzzane, L. Lemaitre, Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: Multiparametric MR-targeted Biopsy with Cognitive and Transrectal US-MR Fusion Guidance versus Systematic Biopsy – Prospective Multicenter Study, RSNA 2013
  • [4] G. Paoletti, M. Silvani, D. Confalone, L. Lodigiani, L. Manzoli, S. D’Onofrio, S. de Beni, G. Mauri, L. Forzoni, Latest Advancements in Real-time Fusion Imaging for Prostate, ECR 2015
  • [5] Philippe Puech, Genito-urinary Imaging Department of the Lille University Hospital Centre, Ultrasound-MRI fusion advances prostate therapy, December 2012, www.healthcare-in europe.com
  • [6] N.B. Delongchamps et al., Prebiopsy magnetic resonance imaging and prostate cancer detection: comparison of random and targeted biopsies, J Urol. 2013 Feb;189(2):493-9. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2012.08.195
  • [7] F. Cornud, L. Brolis, N. Barry Delongchamps, D. Portalez, B. Malavaud, R. Renard-Penna, P. Mozer, TRUS-MRI image registration: a paradigm shift in the diagnosis of significant prostate cancer, Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013, Abdom Imaging (2013)
  • [8] Anna M. Brown, Osama Elbuluk, Francesca Mertan, Sandeep Sankineni, Daniel J. Margolis, Bradford J. Wood, Peter A. Pinto, Peter L. Choyke, Baris Turkbey, Recent advances in image-guided targeted prostate biopsy, Abdominal Imaging August 2015
  • [9] Geoffrey A. Sonn, Daniel J. Margolis, Leonard S. Marks, Target detection: Magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion-guided prostate biopsy, Urol Oncol. August 2014
  • [10] Evelyn A. Firle, Stefan Wesarg, Grigorios Karangelis and Christian Dold, Validation of 3D Ultrasound - CT Registration of Prostate images
  • [11] F. Paparo et al., Value of bimodal 18F-choline-PET/MRI and trimodal 18F-choline-PET/MRI/TRUS for the assessment of prostate cancer recurrence after radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy, Abdominal Imaging, August 2015, Volume 40, Issue 6, pp 1772-1787
  • [12] J.K. Logan et al., Current status of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography fusion software platforms for guidance of prostate biopsies, BJU Int 2014; 114: 641–652, doi:10.1111/bju.12593

Базовая и расширенная диагностика при ультразвуковой эхографии шейного отдела позвоночника

  • [1] Ragazzoni F et al., High diagnostic accuracy and inter-observer reliability of real-time elastography in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, July 2012: 38(7): 1154-62
  • [2] Calliada F, Canepari M, Ferraioli G, Filice C, Esaote: ElaXto Sonoelastography, in Sono-Elastography Main Clinical Applications, EDIMES Srl Edizioni Medico Scientifiche – Pavia, ISBN 978-88-88541-09-9
  • [3] Chin S, Perlas A, Needle Visualization in Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia: Challenges and Solutions - Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 2008: 33 (6): 532–544.
  • [4] Duger C, Isbir A, The Importance of Needle Echogenity in Ultrasound Guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Block: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study - International Journal Medical Sciences, 2013: 10(9): 1108–1112.
  • [5] Koski J, Hammer H, Ultrasound-guided procedures: techniques and usefulness in controlling inflammation and disease progression - Rheumatology, Oxford Journal, 2012: Vol 51: vii31-vii35.
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