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    Esaote aims to deliver precise and reliable diagnosis to meet any clinical need. Integrated solutions for data and image management ensure safe and streamlined workflow.


Clinical References - Scientific Literature

Find the highest quality clinical studies committed to helping healthcare professionals provide better patient care on a daily basis through the Esaote’s high performance imaging systems and advanced technologies.
The collection of the most important scientific literature relevant to a particular question represents the scientific evidence to improve clinical accuracy in managing patients and develop the clinical practice guidelines.
By identifying the most critical challenges facing patient care today, clinicians and imaging professionals can increase confidence and gain new opportunities to learn, judge and experience innovative modalities and procedures in everyday clinical practice.

Lesions detection and characterization by using contrast media

  • [1] Emilio Quaia, “Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the small bowel in Crohn’s disease”, Abdom Imaging (2013) 38:1005–1013 DOI: 10.1007/s00261-013-0014-8
  • [2] Klauser Andrea, Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rheumatic joint disease", HIGHLIGHTS in CONTRAST, ULTRASOUND, Volume 2 - Number 3 - May 2005
  • [3] Klauser Andrea, "Value of Contrast Ultrasound in Rheumatic Joint Disease, dic-06, US Musculoskeletal Review 2006 - Issue 2
  • [4] Stefano Di Domenico, Valentina Patti, Federico Fazio, Elisabetta Moggia, Iris Fontana, and Umberto Valente, “CEUS Retrograde Cystography Is Helpful in Percutaneous Drainage of Complex Posttransplant Lymphocele”, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Case Reports in Urology, Volume 2012, Article ID 919215, doi:10.1155/2012/919215
  • [5] Marco Baron Toaldo, Veronica Salvatore, Sara Marinelli, Chiara Palamà, Maddalena Milazzo, Luca Croci, Laura Venerandi, Mario Cipone, Luigi Bolondi, Fabio Piscaglia, “Use of VEGFR-2 Targeted Ultrasound Contrast Agent for the Early Evaluation of Response to Sorafenib in a Mouse Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma”, Mol Imaging Biol (2014), DOI: 10.1007/s11307-014-0764-x (Academy of Molecular Imaging and Society for Molecular Imaging, 2014)
  • [6] Sara Marinelli, Veronica Salvatore, Marco Baron Toaldo, Maddalena Milazzo, Luca Croci, Laura Venerandi, Anna Pecorelli, Chiara Palamà, Alessia Diana, Luigi Bolondi, Fabio Piscaglia, “Evaluation of the impact of transient interruption of antiangiogenic treatment using ultrasound-based techniques in a murine model of hepatocellular carcinoma”, June 14, www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/14/403
  • [7] E.M. Jung, P. Wiggermann, C. Greis, F. Eder, J. Ehrich, W. Jung, A.G. Schreyer, “First results of endocavity evaluation of the microvascularization of malignant prostate tumors using contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) including perfusion analysis”, Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation Volume 52, Number 2-4 / 2012, Pages 167-177, DOI 10.3233/CH-2012-1594
  • [8] B. Corcioni C. Gaudiano, F. Busato, C. V. Pultrone, R. Schiavina, R. Golfieri, “Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of small testicular masses”, ECR 2015
  • [9] A. De Marchi, S. Pozza, E. Gangemi, M. Stella, C. Faletti, “Ultrasonographic imaging to study and follow-up patients undergoing lipofilling”, ECR 2014
  • [10] O. Catalano, A. Nunziata, E. de Lutio di Castelguidone, G. Nasti, F. Tatangelo, A. Petrillo, “Contrast-enhanced sonography (CEUS) imaging of colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastasis: comparison with CT in the assessment of response to neoadjuvant, antiangiogenic therapy”, ECR 2013
  • [11] R. Iezzi, M. la Torre, M. Santoro, R. Dattesi, A. Guerra, L. Bonomo, “Role of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the detection of carotid plaque vulnerability: a pilot study“, ECR 2013
  • [12] G. Mauri, E. Porazzi, T. Tondolo, U. Restelli, L. Solbiati, “Therapeutic impact of intraprocedural contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)”, ECR 2013
  • [13] A. De Marchi, S. Pozza, E. Brach del Prever, P. De Petro, P. Balocco, R. Piana, A. Linari, C. Faletti, ”Can contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) distinguish benign from malignant soft-tissue masses? Prelimirary results”, ECR 2013
  • [14] Tobias De Zordo, Sabine P. Mlekusch a, Gudrun M. Feuchtner a, Erich Murb, Michael Schirmer c, Andrea S. Klauser, “Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rheumatoid arthritis”, European Journal of Radiology 64 (2007) 222–230

Comprehensive Elastosonography Package for all Districts

  • [1] G. Monetti, "Ecografia muscolo-scheletrica – Elastosonografia", TIMEO Ed., Bologna, February 2011
  • [2] L. Di Geso et al., "Reliability of ultrasound measurements of dermal thickness at digits in systemic sclerosis: role of elastosonography", Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2011; 29
  • [3] Ragazzoni F et al., "High diagnostic accuracy and interobserver reliability of real-time elastography in the evaluation of thyroid nodules", Ultrasound Med Biol. 2012 Jul; 38(7): 1154-62
  • [4] Sperandeo M, Trovato FM, Dimitri L, Catalano D, Simeone A, Martines GF, Piscitelli AP, Trovato GM, "Lung transthoracic ultrasound elastography imaging and guided biopsies of subpleural cancer: a preliminary report", Acta Radiol. 2014 Jun 20. pii: 0284185114538424
  • [5] Marco Sperandeo, Guglielmo M. Trovato, Lucia Dimitri, Giuseppe Fabio Martines, Anna Simeone, Francesca M. Trovato, Angela Pamela Piscitelli, Daniela Catalano, "Ultrasound Elastography Pattern of lung squamous cell carcinoma: Preliminary report on a possible adjunctive tool for noninvasive imaging", J Clin Oncol 31, 2013 (suppl; abstr e18518)
  • [6] Fabrizio Calliada, Mario Canepari, Giovanna Ferraioli, Carlo Filice, “Esaote: ElaXto Sonoelastography, in Sono-Elastography Main Clinical Applications”, EDIMES Srl Edizioni Medico Scientifiche – Pavia, ISBN 978-88-88541-09-9
  • [7] E. Giannotti, J. Nori, D. Abdulcadir, G. Bicchierai, L. Forzoni, S. de Beni, S. D'onofrio, G. Scaperrotta, “Virtual Biopsy and 3DPan Fusion Imaging for Breast Core Biopsy”, ePOS ECR 2014: www.myECR.org/epos - DOI: 10.1594/ecr2014/C-0219
  • [8] S. Matteoli, L. Forzoni, F. Vannetti, A. Virga, A. Corvi, R. Molino-Lova, “Elastosonography and elastic modulus in healthy young heel pads”, VDE BMT Congress 2014, Hannover, Germany, October 2014
  • [9] S. Matteoli, L. Forzoni, F. Vannetti, A. Virga, A. Corvi, R. Molino-Lova; “Sonoelastography on diabetic heel pads: a feasibility study”, Congress: ECR 2015, Poster No.: C-1005, Type: Scientific Exhibit; DOI: 10.1594/ecr2015/C-1005; DOI-Link: dx.doi.org/10.1594/ecr2015/C-1005

Fusion Imaging for Poorly Visualized Lesions


  • [1] Mauri G, Cova L, De Beni S, Ierace T, Tondolo T, Cerri A, Goldberg SN, Solbiati L., “Real-Time US-CT/MRI Image Fusion for Guidance of Thermal Ablation of Liver Tumors Undetectable with US: Results in 295 Cases”, Cardiovascular Interventional Radiology 2014 May 8
  • [2] Enzo Di Mauro, Marco Solbiati, Stefano De Beni, Leonardo Forzoni, Sara D’Onofrio, Luigi Solbiati, “Virtual Navigator Real-Time Ultrasound Fusion Imaging with Positron Emission Tomography for Liver Interventions”, 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS Osaka, Japan, 3 - 7 July, 2013


  • [3] Villa, F. Chiesa, I. Rosenberg, A. Tagliafico, M. Perinetti, A. Del Prato, “MRI and ultrasound guided prostate biopsy using the fusion imaging technique”, ECR 2013 Congress


  • [4] Prada F, DelBene M, Mattei L, Casali C, Fillippini A, Legnani F, Mangraviti A, Saladino A, Perin A Richetta C, Vetrano I, Moiraghi A, Saini M, DiMeco F., “Fusion Imaging for intra-operative ultrasound-based navigation in neurosurgery”, Journal of Ultrasound 2014, 17:243-251 DOI:10.1007/s40477-014-0111-8
  • [5] Prada F, DelBene M, Mattei L, Lodigiani L, Kolev V, DeBeni S, Casali C, Legnani F, Perin A, Saladino A, Solbiati L, Sakas G, DiMeco F., “Pre-operative magnetic resonance and intra-operative ultrasound fusion imaging for real-time neuronavigation in brain tumor surgery”, Ultraschall. In press, 2014


  • [6] Stephan J. Schreiber, José M. Valdueza, and Florian Doepp, “Transcranial color coded sonography: advanced approach using ultrasound fusion imaging”, IJCNMH 2014; 1(Suppl. 1):S16
  • [7] Lagana, M.; Preti, M.; Forzoni, L.; D'onofrio, S.; De Beni, S.; Barberio, A.; Cecconi, P.; Baselli, G.; “Transcranial Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Image fusion with Virtual Navigator”, - Multimedia, IEEE Transactions on Volume: PP, Issue: 99 (July 2013) - DOI: 10.1109/TMM.2013.2244871
  • [8] Leonardo Forzoni, Sara D'Onofrio, Stefano De Beni, Maria M. Laganà, David Skoloudik, Giuseppe Baselli, and Pietro Cecconi , “Virtual Navigator Registration Procedure for Transcranial Application”; DOI: 10.2316/P.2012.764-158; Proceeding (764) Biomedical Engineering / 765: Telehealth / 766: Assistive Technologies – 2012


  • [9] Iagnocco A, Perella C, D'Agostino MA, Sabatini E, Valesini G, Conaghan PG., “Magnetic resonance and ultrasonography real-time fusion imaging of the hand and wrist in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis“,Rheumatology (Oxford). 2011 Aug;50(8):1409-13. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/ker111


  • [10] Leonardo Forzoni, Stefano De Beni, Sara D’Onofrio, Maria Marcella Laganà, Jacopo Nori, “Virtual Navigator 3D Panoramic for Breast Examination”, 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS Osaka, Japan, 3 - 7 July, 2013, 1394-1397
  • [11] E. Giannotti, J. Nori, D. Abdulcadir, G. Bicchierai, L. Forzoni, S. de Beni, S. D'onofrio, G. Scaperrotta, “Virtual Biopsy and 3DPan Fusion Imaging for Breast Core Biopsy”, ePOS ECR 2014: www.myECR.org/epos - DOI: 10.1594/ecr2014/C-0219

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